**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Kinley, 2016)

**Reference:** Kinley (2016). Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs. *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11*(9), 3371-3385.

**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kinley. Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs. *INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2016;11(9), 3371-3385.

**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Kinley, 2016)

**Reference:** Kinley. "Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs". *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2016 11 no. 9 (2016): 3371-3385.

**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Kinley, 2016)

**Reference:** Kinley (2016). Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs. *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 11(9), pp. 3371-3385.

**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Kinley, 2016)

**Reference:** Kinley "Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs". *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 11, no. 9, 2016, pp. 3371-3385.

**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kinley. Grade Twelve Students Establishing the Relationship Between Differentiation and Integration in Calculus Using graphs. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2016;11(9):3371-85.

# Abstract

Calculus is an important subject for science, engineering, and other fields of studies but phenomenally it is abstract and difficult to learn. Despite its importance, the teaching of introductory calculus always emphasizes manipulation of algebraic notations and rote learning. Most students learn the how instead of the why of calculus due to extensive use of algebraic symbols and notations. Therefore, graphing activities were developed based on the learning cycle approach and the lesson was taught for an hour in the classroom. This study investigates the effectiveness of the lesson in understanding the relationship between differentiation and integration calculus and to measure the students’ attitude towards the learning unit. Sixty-five grade twelve students from higher secondary school were selected for the study. The test scores showed that there was significance improvement in the post-test scores compared to the pre-test scores. It was also found that the lesson was effective and enriching.