**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Stiphout et al., 2013)

**Reference:** Stiphout, I. V., Drijvers, P., & Gravemeijer, K. (2013). The development of students’ algebraic proficiency.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 8*(2-3), 62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Stiphout IV, Drijvers P, Gravemeijer K. The development of students’ algebraic proficiency.

*INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2013;8(2-3), 62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Stiphout et al., 2013)

**Reference:** Stiphout, Irene van, Paul Drijvers, and Koeno Gravemeijer. "The development of students’ algebraic proficiency".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2013 8 no. 2-3 (2013): 62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Stiphout et al., 2013)

**Reference:** Stiphout, I. V., Drijvers, P., and Gravemeijer, K. (2013). The development of students’ algebraic proficiency.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 8(2-3), pp. 62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Stiphout et al., 2013)

**Reference:** Stiphout, Irene van et al. "The development of students’ algebraic proficiency".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 8, no. 2-3, 2013, pp. 62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Stiphout IV, Drijvers P, Gravemeijer K. The development of students’ algebraic proficiency. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2013;8(2-3):62-80.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/274
# Abstract

Students’ algebraic proficiency is debated worldwide. To investigate the development of algebraic proficiency in Dutch secondary education, we set up a study, in which 1020 students in grades 8 – 12 took four algebra tests over a period of one year. Rasch analysis of the results shows that the students do make progress throughout the assessment, but that this progress is small. A qualitative analysis of test items that invite structure sense reveals that students’ lack of structure sense may explain the results: the majority of the students were not able to deal flexibly with the mathematical structure of expressions and equations. More attention to structure sense in algebra education is recommended.