International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: DiNapoli J. Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task. Int Elect J Math Ed. 2019;14(3), 435-453. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (DiNapoli, 2019)
Reference: DiNapoli, J. (2019). Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), 435-453. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747
Chicago
In-text citation: (DiNapoli, 2019)
Reference: DiNapoli, Joseph. "Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 2019 14 no. 3 (2019): 435-453. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747
Harvard
In-text citation: (DiNapoli, 2019)
Reference: DiNapoli, J. (2019). Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), pp. 435-453. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747
MLA
In-text citation: (DiNapoli, 2019)
Reference: DiNapoli, Joseph "Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 14, no. 3, 2019, pp. 435-453. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: DiNapoli J. Persevering toward What? Investigating the Relationship between Ninth-grade Students’ Achievement Goals and Perseverant Actions on an Algebraic Task. Int Elect J Math Ed. 2019;14(3):435-3. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5747

Abstract

Perseverance is vital for the process of learning mathematics with understanding. To do so, students must wrestle with obstacles and amend their problem-solving plan when necessary. I collected qualitative data to investigate the nature of perseverance for 11 ninth-grade algebra students working on a challenging task for which they affirmed interest. Employing analytical frameworks of achievement goal perceptions and subsequent perseverant actions, the findings inform three distinct profiles of in-the-moment perseverance states. These profiles suggest that perseverant actions are not always aligned with students’ goals of meaning-making. Although students may report being motivated by building conceptual understanding, they may not fully grasp what it means to achieve such mastery goals. I provide suggestions for teachers to further encourage the development of more perseverant learners.

References

  • Aaron, W. R. (2011). The position of the student in geometry instruction: A study from three perspectives (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), The University of Michigan. Available at https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/84625
  • Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Available at https://eric.ed.gov/?ID=ED490195
  • Ainley, M., Hidi, S., & Berndorff, D. (2002). Interest, learning, and the psychological processes that mediate their relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 545. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.545
  • Ainley, M., Hillman, K., & Hidi, S. (2002). Gender and interest processes in response to literary texts: Situational and individual interest. Learning and Instruction, 12(4), 411-428.
  • Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00008-1
  • Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267. Retrieved from http://groups.jyu.fi/sporticus/lahteet/LAHDE_10.pdf
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  • Bandura, A. & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-instruction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(3), 586-598. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.3.586
  • Bass, H. & Ball, D. L. (2015). Beyond “you can do it!”: Developing mathematical perseverance in elementary school. In N. Alpert (Ed.), The Collected Papers. Chicago, IL: Spencer Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.spencer.org/collected-papers-april-2015
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1). 246-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x
  • Butler, R. (1992). What young people want to know when: Effects of mastery and ability goals on interest in different kinds of social comparisons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 934-943. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.62.6.934
  • Carbonaro, W. (2005). Tracking, students’ effort, and academic achievement. Sociology of Education, 78(1), 27-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070507800102
  • Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2001). On the self-regulation of behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). (2010). Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers.
  • Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: Heath.
  • Dolle, J. R., Gomez, L. M., Russell, J. L., & Bryk, A. S. (2013). More than a network: Building professional communities for educational improvement. National Society for the Study of Education, 112(2), 443-463. Retrieved from http://learndbir.org/resources/14-Dolle-Gomez-Russell-Bryk-Ready.pdf
  • Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087
  • Duda, J. L. & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 290-299. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joan_Duda/publication/229106683_Dimensions_of_Achievement_Motivation_in_Schoolwork_and_Sport/links/0fcfd5005568b0d772000000/Dimensions-of-Achievement-Motivation-in-Schoolwork-and-Sport.pdf
  • Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.
  • Dweck, C. S. & Elliott, E. S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In E. M. Heatherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development. (Vol. 4, pp. 643-691). New York: Wiley.
  • Dweck, C. S. & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2592/a119a2a9b3436edc9b073d5b1aff55a824e5.pdf
  • Eccles, J. S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), 109-132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153
  • Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 149-169. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3
  • Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. Handbook of Competence and Motivation, 52-72.
  • Elliot, A. J. & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2× 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(3), 501-519. Retrieved from http://www.realtutoring.com/phd/ElliotMcGregor2001.pdf
  • Fenstermacher, G. D. (1986). Philosophy of research on teaching: Three aspects. Handbook of Research on Teaching, 3, 37-49.
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
  • Freeburn, B. & Arbaugh, F. (2017). Supporting productive struggle with communication moves. Mathematics Teacher, 111(3), 176-181. Available at https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5951/mathteacher.111.3.0176
  • Furner, J. M. & Gonzalez-DeHass, A. (2011). How do students’ mastery and performance goals relate to math anxiety? Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 7(4), 227-242. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/75209
  • Gallagher, A. M. & De Lisi, R. (1994). Gender differences in scholastic aptitude test – Mathematics problem solving among high-ability students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 204-211. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-0663.86.2.204
  • Gresalfi, M. S. & Barnes, J. (2015). Designing feedback in an immersive videogame: supporting student mathematical engagement. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-22. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11423-015-9411-8
  • Goldin, G. A., Epstein, Y. M., Schorr, R. Y., & Warner, L. B. (2011). Beliefs and engagement structures: Behind the affective dimension of mathematical learning. ZDM Mathematics Education, 43, 547-560. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11858-011-0348-z
  • Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., & Guerin, D. W. (2007). Multivariate latent change modeling of developmental decline in academic intrinsic math motivation and achievement: Childhood through adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(4), 317–327. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0165025407077752
  • Harackiewicz, J. M., Durik, A. M., Barron, K. E., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Tauer, J. M. (2008). The role of achievement goals in the development of interest: Reciprocal relations between achievement goals, interest, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.105
  • Hidi, S. & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4
  • Hiebert, J., & Carpenter, T. P. (1992). Learning and teaching with understanding. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 65-97.
  • Hiebert, J., Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Fuson, K., Human, P., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Wearne, D. (1996). Problem solving as a basis for reform in curriculum and instruction: The case of mathematics. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0013189X025004012
  • Hiebert, J. & Grouws, D. A. (2007). The effects of classroom mathematics teaching on students’ learning. Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 1, 371–404.
  • Kapur, M. (2010). Productive failure in mathematical problem-solving. Instructional Science, 38(6), 523–550. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11251-009-9093-x
  • Kapur, M. (2011). A further study of productive failure in mathematical problem-solving: Unpacking the design components. Instructional Science, 39(4), 561–579. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11251-010-9144-3
  • Karabenick, S. A. (2003). Seeking help in large college classes: A person-centered approach. Contemporary educational psychology, 28(1), 37-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-476X(02)00012-7
  • Karabenick, S.A. (2004). Perceived achievement goal structure and college student help seeking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 569-581. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-0663.96.3.569
  • Krajcik, J. S. & Shin, N. (2015). Project-based learning. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp. 275-297). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kress, N. E. (2017). 6 essential questions for problem-solving. Mathematics Teacher, 111(3), 190-196. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5951/mathteacher.111.3.0190
  • Lepper, M. R. (1988). Motivational considerations in the study of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 5, 289-309. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532690xci0504_3
  • Linnenbrink, E. A. & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 119-137. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560308223
  • Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514-523.
  • Middleton, J. A., & Spanias, P. A. (1999). Motivation for achievement in mathematics: Findings, generalizations, and criticisms of the research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30, 65–88. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/749630
  • Middleton, J. A., Tallman, M., Hatfield, N., & Davis, O. (2015). Taking the severe out of perseverance: Strategies for building mathematical determination. In N. Alpert (Ed.), The Collected Papers. Chicago, IL: Spencer Foundation. Available Retrieved from http://www.spencer.org/collected-papers-april-2015
  • Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33–52.
  • Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328-346.
  • Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315-341. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9
  • Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press/ Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (1989). The dynamic interplay of student motivation and cognition in the college classroom. Advances in motivation and achievement, 6, 117-160.
  • Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it (2nd ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books.
  • Renninger, K. A., & Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50(1), 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2014.999920
  • Rickles, J. H. (2013). Examining heterogeneity in the effect of taking algebra in eighth grade. The Journal of Educational Research, 106, 251–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2012.692731
  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
  • Sansone, C., Wiebe, D. J., & Morgan, C. (1999). Self-regulating interest: The moderating role of hardiness and conscientiousness. Journal of Personality, 67(4), 701-733. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00070
  • Stanic, G., & Kilpatrick, J. (1989). Historical perspectives on problem solving in the mathematics curriculum. In R. Charles & E. Silver (Eds.), The teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving (pp. 1-22). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
  • Tulis, M., & Fulmer, S. M. (2013). Students’ motivational and emotional experiences and their relationship to persistence during academic challenge in mathematics and reading. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 35-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.06.003
  • Urdan, T., & Mestas, M. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 354-365. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.354
  • Vollmeyer, R., & Rheinberg, F. (2000). Does motivation affect performance via persistence? Learning and Instruction, 10, 293–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(99)00031-6
  • Warshauer, H. K. (2014). Productive struggle in middle school mathematics classrooms. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 18(4), 375-400. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10857-014-9286-3
  • Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., Miller, G. E., Schulz, R., & Carver, C. S. (2003). Adaptive self-regulation of unattainable goals: Goal disengagement, goal reengagement, and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(12), 1494-1508. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167203256921
  • Yeager, D. S., & Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They’re not magic. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 267-301. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0034654311405999
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.