The Japanese Way of Strength-Based Correction
Thomas Cook 1 *
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1 School of Education, Humboldt State University, USA* Corresponding Author


The study outlines Japan’s positive use of red ink to grade children’s homework in order to limit the amount of shame children experience over failures. The psychology of seeing and the psychodynamics of self-conscious emotions are used to explain the mechanism of Japan’s positive versus America’s negative shame-inducing grading practices. It provides an explanation for unconscious cultural grading practices that tend to differentially produce either pride or shame.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

INT ELECT J MATH ED, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, 419-426

Publication date: 25 Mar 2019

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