International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Elbehary SGA. Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2020;15(2), em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Elbehary, 2020)
Reference: Elbehary, S. G. A. (2020). Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 15(2), em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603
Chicago
In-text citation: (Elbehary, 2020)
Reference: Elbehary, Samah Gamal Ahmed. "Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 2020 15 no. 2 (2020): em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603
Harvard
In-text citation: (Elbehary, 2020)
Reference: Elbehary, S. G. A. (2020). Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 15(2), em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603
MLA
In-text citation: (Elbehary, 2020)
Reference: Elbehary, Samah Gamal Ahmed "Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 15, no. 2, 2020, em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Elbehary SGA. Providing Insights into the Intended Curriculum of Probability for Basic Education Sector in Egypt from a Comparative Perspective. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2020;15(2):em0581. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/7603

Abstract

In Egypt, the curricula delay in updating and stagnation behind modern educational trends represents a challenge, which may hinder education quality. Hence, to respond to such a national challenge, there is a need to review the curricula in light of modern educational trends, particularly in the case of probability where it has emerged as a mainstream strand in mathematics curricula worldwide. Moreover, according to the International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 and 2007, Egyptian students’ achievement in “data and chance” is the lowest among other mathematics areas. Therefore, this study aims at providing insights into the intended curriculum of probability (ICoP) in Egypt from a comparative perspective with the New Zealand curriculum, which works as a model for curriculum development in other countries. The summative content analysis approach has been utilized to explore and quantify the primary probabilistic entities’ usage in the official documents of both countries’ curricula and ensure the consistency between them though assigning the fundamental probabilistic ideas. The study revealed that the ICoP in Egypt is consistent with the New Zealand curriculum in strengthening the probabilistic ideas that are relevant to randomness, events and sample space, and modeling and simulation. However, the ideas of independence and conditional probability, probability distribution and expectation, and convergence and the law of large numbers have not yet been considered in Egypt. Therefore, curriculum developers should look critically at these ideas and address them within teacher education programs. Moreover, explore how to enhance students’ probabilistic reasoning represents an expected schema for further research.

References

  • Abdelbasit, K. M. (2010). Teaching Statistics in a Language Other Than the Students’. In C. Reading (Ed.), Data and Context in Statistics Education: Towards an Evidence Based Society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 20 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/documents/papers/icots8/ICOTS8_C215_ABDELBASIT.pdf
  • Ainley, J., & Monteiro, C. (2008). Comparing Curricular Approaches for Statistics in Primary School in England and Brazil: A Focus on Graphing. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, C. Reading, & A. Rossman (Eds.), Joint ICMI/IASE Study: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education. Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 and 2008 IASE Round Table Conference. Retrieved on 20 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/documents/papers/rt2008/T1P9_Ainley.pdf
  • Alfaki, I., & Hijazi, R., (2018). Statistics Capacity Building and Alignment of Learning Outcomes with Business Sector Needs in the GSS Countries. In M. A. Sorto, A. White, & L. Guyot (Eds.), Looking back, looking forward. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10), Kyoto, Japan. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 20 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/10/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS10_C193.pdf
  • American Statistical Association. (2007). Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education. Retrieved on 13 June 2019 from http://www.amstat.org/education/gaise/index.cfm
  • Batanero C., Chernoff E.J., Engel J., Lee H.S., & Sánchez E. (2016). Research on Teaching and Learning Probability. In: Research on Teaching and Learning Probability. ICME-13 Topical Surveys. Springer, Cham. Retrieved on 9 July 2019 from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-31625-3_1
  • Batanero, C., Biehler, R., Maxara, C., Engel, J., & Vogel, M. (2005a). Using simulation to bridge teachers’ content and pedagogical knowledge in probability. Paper presented at the fifteenth ICMI Study Conference: The professional education and development of teachers of mathematics. Aguas de Lindoia, Brazil: International Commission for Mathematical Instruction. Retrieved on 10 July 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282281200_Using_simulation_to_bridge_teachers_content_and_pedagogical_knowledge_in_probability
  • Batanero, C., Godino, J. D., & Roa, R. (2004). Training teachers to teach probability. Journal of Statistics Education, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/10691898.2004.11910715
  • Batanero, C., Henry, M., & Parzysz, B. (2005b). The nature of chance and probability. In G. A. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in school: challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 15–37). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-24530-8_2
  • Beswick, K. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs that matter in secondary mathematics classrooms. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 65(1), 95-120.
  • Borovcnik, M. (2008). A plea for a relatively strong role for probability within stochastic curricula. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, C. Reading, & A. Rossman (Eds.), Joint ICMI/IASE Study: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics- Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education. Retrieved on 20 June 2019 from https://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/rt08/Panel2_Borovcnik.pdf
  • Borovcnik, M., & Kapadia, R. (2009). Research and Developments in Probability Education, International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 4(3), 111-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-006-9035-3
  • Burrill, G., & Biehler, R. (2011). Fundamental statistical ideas in the school curriculum and in training teachers. In: Batanero C., Burrill G., Reading C. (eds) Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education. New ICMI Study Series, vol 14. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_10
  • Carranza, P., & Kuzniak, A. (2008). Duality of Probability and Statistics Teaching in French Education. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, C. Reading, & A. Rossman (Eds.), Joint ICMI/IASE Study: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education. Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 and 2008 IASE Round Table Conference, ICMI and IASE, Monterrey.
  • Chaput B., Girard J. C., & Henry M. (2011). Frequentist Approach: Modelling and Simulation in Statistics and Probability Teaching. In: Batanero C., Burrill G., & Reading C. (eds) Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics- Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education. New ICMI Study Series, vol 14. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_12
  • Chiesi, F., & Primi, C. (2009). Recency effects in primary-age children and college students. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 4(3), 259-274.
  • Clark, S. S. (2010). Enacting Students to Use the Chi- Square Test when Observation Are Dependent. In C. Reading (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 7 July 2019 from http://icots.info/8/cd/pdfs/contributed/ICOTS8_C282_CLARK.pdf
  • Curriculum Center for Instructional Materials Development (CCIMD). (2012). Qualitative Documents for Basic Education. Retrieved on 20 May 2019 from http://moe.gov.eg/ccimd/Doc_quality1.html
  • David, I., & Brown, J. A. (2010). Implementing the change: teaching statistical thinking not just methods. In C. Reading (Ed.), Data and context in statistics education: Towards an evidence-based society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS8), Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
  • David, I., Seddon, H., Harlow, J., & Brown, J. (2014). Teaching Statistics in a Crisis Zone. In C. Reading (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 12 July 2019 from https://icots.info/9/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS9_C137_DAVID.pdf
  • Downe-Wamboldt, B. (1992). Content analysis: Method, applications and issues. Health Care for Women International, 13(3), 313-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399339209516006
  • Edwards, H. (2014). A Review of Probability and Statistics APPS for Mobile Devices. In K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould (Eds.), Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9), Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 7 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/9/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS9_C116_EDWARDS.pdf
  • Elbehary, S. (2019). The Necessity of Revising Primary School Content of Probability in Egypt to Enhance Students’ Probabilistic Reasoning. In: S Budgett (Ed.), Decision Making Based on Data Proceedings of the Satellite conference of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE), August 2019, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved on 1 October 2019 from http://iase-web.org/documents/papers/sat2019/IASE2019%20Satellite%20130_ELBEHARY.pdf?1569666566
  • Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: A focus on trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633
  • Folger, J. P., Hewes, D. E., & Poole, M. S. (1984). Coding social interaction. In B. Dervin, & M. J. Voigt (Ed.), Progress in communication sciences (pp. 115-161). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • Forbes, S. (2014). The coming of age of statistics education in New Zealand, and its influence internationally. Journal of Statistics Education, 22(2), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10691898.2014.11889699
  • Foster. M. (2018). Teaching Time Series to Undergraduate Students. In M. A. Sorto, A. White, & L. Guyot (Eds.), Looking back, looking forward. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10), Kyoto, Japan. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 7 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/10/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS10_C195.pdf?1531364322
  • Friedrichsen, P. J., Abell, S. K., Pareja, E. M., Brown, P. L., Lankford, D. M., & Volkmann, M. J. (2009). Does teaching experience matter? Examining biology teachers’ prior knowledge for teaching in an alternative certification program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(4), 357-383. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20283
  • Godino, J. D., Batanero, C., & Font, V. (2007). The onto-semiotic approach to research in mathematics education. ZDM. The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 39(1), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-006-0004-1
  • Hacking, I. (1990). The Taming of Chance (Ideas in Context). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511819766
  • Heitele, D. (1975). An epistemological view on fundamental stochastic ideas. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 6(2), 187-205. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00302543
  • Houang, R. T., & Schmidt, W. H. (2008). TIMSS international curriculum analysis and measuring educational opportunities. Paper presented at 3rd IEA International Research Conference (IRC 2008), Taiwan Normal University, Taipei. Retrieved on 1 July 2019 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.637.4062&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  • Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
  • Innabi, H. (2014). Teaching statistics in the Arab countries: The ambitions and the needs. In K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould (Eds.), Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9), Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 5 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/9/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS9_C286_INNABI.pdf
  • Jones, G. A., Langrall, C. W., & Mooney, E. S. (2007). Research in probability: responding to classroom realities. In F.K. Lester Jr. (Ed.), The second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 909- 955). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • Kaid, L. L. (1989). Content analysis. In P. Emmert & L. L. Barker (Eds.), Measurement of communication behavior (pp. 197-217). New York: Longman.
  • Kazak, S., & Confrey, J. (2006). Elementary school students’ informal and intuitive conceptions of probability and distribution. In A. Rossman, & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Salvador, Brazil: International Statistical Institute and International Association for Statistical Education. Retrieved on 20 August 2019 from https://iase-web.org/documents/papers/icots7/6B1_KAZA.pdf
  • Kazima, M. (2007). Malawian students meaning for probability vocabulary. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 64(2), 169-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-006-9032-6
  • Kruger, L., Gigerenzer, G., & Morgan, M. S. (Eds.). (1987). The Probabilistic Revolution: Ideas in the Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Kurz, A. (2011). Access to what should be taught and will be tested: Students’ opportunity to learn the intended curriculum. In S. N. Elliott, R. J. Kettler, P. A. Beddow, & A. Kurz (Eds.), The handbook of accessible achievement tests for all students: Bridging the gaps between research, practice, and policy (pp. 99-129). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9356-4_6
  • Martignon, L. (2014). Fostering children’s probabilistic reasoning and first elements of risk evaluation In E. J. Chernoff, & B. Sriraman (Eds.), Probabilistic thinking, presenting plural perspectives (pp. 149-160). Dordrecht: The Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7155-0_9
  • Martin, M. O. (Ed.). (2005). TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Data Dase. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center Lynch School of Education, Boston College. Retrieved on 14 June 2019 from https://timss.bc.edu/timss2003i/PDF/t03_userguide.pdf
  • McTavish, D.-G., & Pirro, E.-B. (1990). Contextual content analysis. Quality and Quantity, 24(3), 245-265. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00139259
  • Mina, F. M. (2018). A suggested theoretical basis for teacher learning in statistics. In M. A. Sorto, A. White, & L. Guyot (Eds.), Looking back, looking forward. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10), Kyoto, Japan. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 4 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/9/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS9_C284_MINA.pdf
  • Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., & Foy, P. (with Olson, J.F., Preuschoff, C., Erberber, E., Arora, A., & Galia, J.). (2008). Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved on 14 June 2019 from https://timss.bc.edu/TIMSS2007/PDF/TIMSS2007_InternationalMathematicsReport.pdf
  • Nacarato, A. M., & Grando, R. C. (2014). The role of language in building probabilistic thinking. Statistics Education Research Journal, 13(2), 93-103.
  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
  • Paul, M., & Hlanganipai, N. (2014). The nature of misconceptions and cognitive obstacles faced by secondary school mathematics students in understanding probability: A case study of selected Polokwane secondary schools. Mathematical Journal of Social Sciences, 5(8), 446-455.
  • Pecky. R. & Gould, R. (2005). Preparing secondary teachers to teach statistics: A distance education model. Invited paper at the International Statistical Institute 55th Session, Sydney. Retrieved on 29 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/documents/papers/isi55/Peck-Gould.pdf
  • Petty, N. W. (2010). Creating YouTube Videos that Engage Students and Enhance Learning in Statistics and Excel. In C. Reading (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 3 July 2019 from https://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/icots8/ICOTS8_C165_PETTY.pdf
  • Phaeton, M. J., & Stears, M. (2017). Exploring the alignment of the intended and implemented curriculum through teachers’ interpretation: A case study of A-level biology practical work. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13(3), 723-740. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00640a
  • Polly, D. McGee, J. R., Wang, C., Richard G. L., David, K. P., & Johnson, S. (2013). The association between teachers’ beliefs, enacted practices, and student learning in mathematics. The Mathematics Educator, 22(2), 11-30.
  • Rubel, L. H. (2007). Middle school and high school students’ probabilistic reasoning on coin tasks. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38(5), 531-556.
  • Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Sharma, S. (2014). Influence of culture on high school students’ understanding of statistics: A Fijian perspective. Statistics Education Research Journal, 13(2), 104-117.
  • Sharma, S. (2016). Probability from a socio-cultural perspective. Statistics Education Research Journal, 15(2), 126-144.
  • Stein, M. K., & Kim, G. (2009). The role of mathematics curriculum materials in large-scale urban reform: An analysis of demands and opportunities for teacher learning. In J. T. Remillard, B. A. Herbel-Eisenmann, & G. M. Lloyd (Eds.), Mathematics teachers at work: Connecting curriculum materials and classroom instruction (pp. 37-55). New York: Routledge.
  • Steinbring, H. (1991). The theoretical nature of probability in the classroom. In R. Kapadia, & M. Borovcnik (Eds.), Chance Encounters: Probability in Education, (pp. 135-167). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3532-0_5
  • Stern, D., Stirling, D., Dale., I., & Stern, R. (2010). The Use of Computer- Based Tests to Consolidate Statistical Concepts in Kenya. In C. Reading (Ed.), Data and context in statistics education: Towards an evidence-based society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS8), Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 4 July 2019 from http://icots.info/8/cd/pdfs/contributed/ICOTS8_C173_STERN.pdf
  • Stohl, H. (2005). Probability in teacher education and development. In G. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in schools: Challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 345-366). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-24530-8_15
  • Stylianides, A. J., & Ball, D. L. (2004). Studying the mathematical knowledge needed for teaching: The case of teachers’ knowledge of reasoning and proof. Paper presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.
  • Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform. (2019). States Members of the United Nations and States members of specialized agencies. Retrieved on 27 June 2019 from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/memberstates
  • Sustainable Development Strategy: Egypt Vision 2030. (2016). Retrieved on 20 June 2019 from http://sdsegypt2030.com/category/reports-en/page/2/?lang=en
  • Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Bristol, PA: Falmer.
  • The New Zealand Curriculum. (2007). Achievement Objectives by Learning Area. Retrieved on 9 August 2019 from http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum
  • The Sustainable Development Goals Report. (2019). Retrieved on 23 August 2019 from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2019/
  • Thijs, A., & van den Akker, J. (Eds.). (2009). Curriculum in development. Enschede, Netherlands: SLO– Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.
  • TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. (2019). TIMSS 2019 Assessment Frameworks. Retrieved on 24 December 2018 from http://timss2019.org/wp-content/uploads/frameworks/T19-Assessment-Frameworks-Introduction.pdf
  • Torres, G.E., Contreras, J. M. (2014). Meaning of Probability in Spanish Curriculum for Elementary School. In K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould (Eds.), Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9), Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on4 July 2019 from https://iase-web.org/icots/9/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS9_C143_GOMEZTORRES.pdf
  • Wang, D., Q. & Wu, B. (2010). Compare Students’ Attitudes to Learn Mathematics and Statistics in China and Australia. In C. Reading (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 5 July 2019 from http://icots.info/8/cd/pdfs/contributed/ICOTS8_C113_WANG.pdf
  • Zazkis, R., & Chernoff, E. (2008). What Makes a Counterexample Exemplary? Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68(3), 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-007-9110-4

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.