Innovating with in-service mathematics teachers’ professional development: The intersection among mixed-reality simulations, approximation-of-practice, and technology-acceptance
Jair J. Aguilar 1 * , Seokmin Kang 1
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1 Department of Teaching & Learning, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA* Corresponding Author


In-service teachers must be provided with high-quality professional development (PD) opportunities that not only effectively improves and develops their skills, but also engage, and motivate them to continue growing. In this project, we studied in-service teachers’ perceptions, opinions, and mindset toward the use of mixed-reality simulations (MRS) as a potential tool for PD to advance and enhance their pedagogical knowledge for mathematics. We followed a convergent parallel mixed-method approach with 49 in-service teachers who were exposed to a series of simulations sessions. We found evidence that the use and integration of technologies like MRS as a tool for PD is considered to be an approximation of practice well accepted by the teachers. In addition, the majority of participants perceived the tool as an effective-unique strategy to develop skills related to questioning, eliciting and assessing students.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

INT ELECT J MATH ED, Volume 18, Issue 4, November 2023, Article No: em0750

Publication date: 01 Oct 2023

Online publication date: 02 Sep 2023

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