Exploring Calculus I students’ performance between varying course times among other predictive variables
Zachariah Benton Hurdle 1 * , Enes Akbuga 2, Paul Schrader 3
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1 Department of Mathematics, Utah Valley University, Orem, UT, USA2 Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, USA3 Information Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY, USA* Corresponding Author


This study focuses on the analysis of certain performance predictors for calculus I. We collected data from 717 students from 2013 through 2018 at a southeastern university in the United States to explore any correlation between course times (particularly very early versus the rest) and student performance in this specific course, along with a handful of other variables. This represented all calculus I students over this time period. A two-proportion test confirmed that time was a significant variable in performance. We then used regression to determine similar impacts of gender, major, instructor, and term on student performance. Initial findings portrayed statistical differences between terms and course times; other findings included the significance of major and instructor in different contexts. Interaction effects were used with time to complete our analysis of its impact, and controls were later used accordingly. We also display appropriate models for comparing categories. We conclude with some basic assertions and argue some departmental recommendations on how to use these findings in undergraduate mathematics education.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

INT ELECT J MATH ED, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Article No: em0700


Publication date: 16 Jul 2022

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