The present study attempted to explore the relationship between computational estimation and problem solving in a sample of Year 6 children and adults (N=72). For this purpose, participants were presented with two tasks which asked them to estimate the computational result in eight arithmetic operations (Computational Estimation Task) as well as to provide solution to eight mathematical word problems, all coming from four different areas of mathematics (Problem Solving Task). The analysis of the results showed that adult participants accomplished more successful estimations compared to children, mostly with the use of rounding and algorithm strategies in both age groups. Age differences were also found in the Problem Solving Task with geometry and arithmetic problems being the most difficult for children and adults, respectively. Last, a significant positive correlation was revealed between estimation computational ability and problem solving ability: participants who had great success in computational estimation tended to indicate high success rates in problem solving. Educational implications are further discussed in terms of the role of computational estimation and problem solving in mathematics learning.
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