**AMA 10th edition**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kosko KW. Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy. *Int Elect J Math Ed*. 2016;11(4), 991-1012.

**APA 6th edition**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko, 2016)

**Reference:** Kosko, K. W. (2016). Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy. *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11*(4), 991-1012.

**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko, 2016)

**Reference:** Kosko, Karl W.. "Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy". *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2016 11 no. 4 (2016): 991-1012.

**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko, 2016)

**Reference:** Kosko, K. W. (2016). Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy. *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 11(4), pp. 991-1012.

**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko, 2016)

**Reference:** Kosko, Karl W. "Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy". *International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 11, no. 4, 2016, pp. 991-1012.

**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kosko KW. Primary Teachers’ Choice of Probing Questions: Effects of MKT and Supporting Student Autonomy. Int Elect J Math Ed. 2016;11(4):991-1012.

# Abstract

The present study explored whether primary grades teachers chose probing questions, given two hypothetical mathematics lesson scenarios. After responding to the mathematics lesson scenarios, participating teachers completed the Problems in Schools survey assessing dispositions to support student autonomy, and the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) assessment for primary grades patterns, functions and algebra. Logistic multiple regression was used to examine the influence of teachers’ MKT and dispositions for supporting student autonomy. Results differed by format of scenario. In the scenario where the choice of a probing question would act as an initial prompt for description, results showed this choice was influenced more strongly by MKT score. In the scenario where a choice of probing question followed an already embedded student description, choosing a probing prompt as a follow-up question was more strongly influenced by support for student autonomy. Additionally, a negative, statistically significant interaction effect was found across both scenarios. Implications for these findings are discussed.