**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko & Wilkins, 2010)

**Reference:** Kosko, K. W., & Wilkins, J. L. M. (2010). Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 5*(2), 79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kosko KW, Wilkins JLM. Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use.

*INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2010;5(2), 79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko and Wilkins, 2010)

**Reference:** Kosko, Karl W., and Jesse L. M. Wilkins. "Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2010 5 no. 2 (2010): 79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko and Wilkins, 2010)

**Reference:** Kosko, K. W., and Wilkins, J. L. M. (2010). Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 5(2), pp. 79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Kosko and Wilkins, 2010)

**Reference:** Kosko, Karl W. et al. "Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010, pp. 79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Kosko KW, Wilkins JLM. Mathematical Communication and Its Relation to the Frequency of Manipulative Use. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2010;5(2):79-90.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/251
# Abstract

Many studies on manipulatives describe communication in mathematics as a component for properly implementing manipulatives in the classroom. However, no empirical research is available to support this relationship. Secondary analysis of data collected by the National Center for Educational Statistics from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was used to examine whether a relationship between students’ manipulative use and communication in mathematics learning exists. Correlational analyses found a significant relationship between students’ verbal and written communication and manipulative use.