**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Innabi, 2007)

**Reference:** Innabi, H. A. (2007). Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 2*(3), 168-186.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Innabi HA. Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization.

*INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2007;2(3), 168-186.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Innabi, 2007)

**Reference:** Innabi, Hanan Ayoub. "Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2007 2 no. 3 (2007): 168-186.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Innabi, 2007)

**Reference:** Innabi, H. A. (2007). Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 2(3), pp. 168-186.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Innabi, 2007)

**Reference:** Innabi, Hanan Ayoub "Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 2, no. 3, 2007, pp. 168-186.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Innabi HA. Factors Considered by Secondary Students When Judging the Validity of a Given Statistical Generalization. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2007;2(3):168-86.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/182
# Abstract

This study investigated the factors that 12th grade students in the United Arab Emirates take into consideration when judging the validity of a given statistical generalization, particularly, in terms of the sample size and sample selection bias. The sample consisted of 360 students who had not studied sampling yet. Results show that a small percentage of the students take the sample size and selection bias into consideration properly. Many students based their judgment on their personal beliefs regardless of the properties of the selected sample. This study identified some pre-teaching misconceptions that students have with regard to sampling. Such misconceptions include ‘any sample represents the population’, and, ‘any sample does not represent the population’.