International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education
Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks
APA
In-text citation: (Ishibashi, 2022)
Reference: Ishibashi, I. (2022). Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 17(3), em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061
AMA
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ishibashi I. Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2022;17(3), em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061
Chicago
In-text citation: (Ishibashi, 2022)
Reference: Ishibashi, Ippo. "Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 2022 17 no. 3 (2022): em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061
Harvard
In-text citation: (Ishibashi, 2022)
Reference: Ishibashi, I. (2022). Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 17(3), em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061
MLA
In-text citation: (Ishibashi, 2022)
Reference: Ishibashi, Ippo "Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 17, no. 3, 2022, em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ishibashi I. Analyzing experimental and theoretical probabilities in Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2022;17(3):em0690. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/12061

Abstract

Probability is a difficult concept, which is not always taught accurately. This study aims to clarify how experimental and theoretical probabilities are taught in Japanese 7th and 8th grades through a textbook analysis. We analyzed seven, government approved Japanese 7th and 8th grade textbooks each. Focusing on the definition and explanation of experimental and theoretical probabilities and the law of large numbers, we identified eight discrete perspectives. Findings revealed that, first, some textbooks aim to teach students to distinguish between experimental and theoretical probabilities, whereas others aim to teach students to be aware of the connection between the two. Second, after explaining theoretical probability, some textbooks asked questions to clarify the scope of theoretical probability, aiming to teach students to distinguish between the two probabilities. Third, in explaining the law of large numbers, textbooks do not adopt the perspective that experimental probability converges on true probability, but that it converges on theoretical probability.

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