**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Jupri et al., 2014)

**Reference:** Jupri, A., Drijvers, P., & Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. V. D. (2014). Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 9*(1), 39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Jupri A, Drijvers P, Heuvel-Panhuizen MVD. Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective.

*INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2014;9(1), 39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Jupri et al., 2014)

**Reference:** Jupri, Al, Paul Drijvers, and Marja van den Heuvel-Panhuizen. "Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2014 9 no. 1 (2014): 39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Jupri et al., 2014)

**Reference:** Jupri, A., Drijvers, P., and Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. V. D. (2014). Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 9(1), pp. 39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Jupri et al., 2014)

**Reference:** Jupri, Al et al. "Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 9, no. 1, 2014, pp. 39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Jupri A, Drijvers P, Heuvel-Panhuizen MVD. Student Difficulties in Solving Equations from an Operational and a Structural Perspective. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2014;9(1):39-55.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/280
# Abstract

In Indonesia, as in many other countries, mathematics teachers, educators and researchers are confronted with student difficulties in initial algebra. To investigate and understand these difficulties, we carried out a pilot study involving 51 Indonesian grade seven students who use a digital mathematics environment for algebra. The notions of operational and structural conceptions offer a framework for explaining student difficulties in solving equations. These include difficulties with arithmetical skills, the use of the equal sign, understanding algebraic expressions, and understanding the concept of variable. The operational and structural perspectives provide guidelines for future task design and research.