International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education Indexed in ESCI
Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors
In-text citation: (Brown & Kanyongo, 2010)
Reference: Brown, L. I., & Kanyongo, G. Y. (2010). Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 5(3), 113-130.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Brown LI, Kanyongo GY. Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2010;5(3), 113-130.
In-text citation: (Brown and Kanyongo, 2010)
Reference: Brown, Launcelot I., and Gibbs Y. Kanyongo. "Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 2010 5 no. 3 (2010): 113-130.
In-text citation: (Brown and Kanyongo, 2010)
Reference: Brown, L. I., and Kanyongo, G. Y. (2010). Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 5(3), pp. 113-130.
In-text citation: (Brown and Kanyongo, 2010)
Reference: Brown, Launcelot I. et al. "Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 5, no. 3, 2010, pp. 113-130.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Brown LI, Kanyongo GY. Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ‎Affective Factors. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2010;5(3):113-30.


This study investigates gender differences in performance on the mathematics component on the Standard 3 National Assessment in Trinidad and Tobago. Of interest is whether there is a relationship between attitudinal differences regarding mathematics and student beliefs in their mathematical abilities and student gender classification. Results indicate that whereas girls performed better than boys on all categories and all skill areas on the test, the effect sizes were small. The results of a MANOVA with follow-up descriptive discriminant analysis also indicate that while boys and girls did not differ with regard to the perception of the school environment, educational values and goals, and general academic self-concept, they differ significantly on the persistence and mathematics self-concept factors. Girls tend to persist more, but hold lower mathematics self-concept than boys.


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