**APA**

**In-text citation:** (Ireland & Watson, 2009)

**Reference:** Ireland, S., & Watson, J. (2009). Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 4*(3), 339-370.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
**AMA**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Ireland S, Watson J. Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability.

*INT ELECT J MATH ED*. 2009;4(3), 339-370.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
**Chicago**

**In-text citation:** (Ireland and Watson, 2009)

**Reference:** Ireland, Seth, and Jane Watson. "Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education* 2009 4 no. 3 (2009): 339-370.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
**Harvard**

**In-text citation:** (Ireland and Watson, 2009)

**Reference:** Ireland, S., and Watson, J. (2009). Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability.

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, 4(3), pp. 339-370.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
**MLA**

**In-text citation:** (Ireland and Watson, 2009)

**Reference:** Ireland, Seth et al. "Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability".

*International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education*, vol. 4, no. 3, 2009, pp. 339-370.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
**Vancouver**

**In-text citation:** (1), (2), (3), etc.

**Reference:** Ireland S, Watson J. Building a Connection between Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Probability. INT ELECT J MATH ED. 2009;4(3):339-70.

https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/244
# Abstract

This paper addresses a question identified by Graham Jones: what are the connections made by students in the middle years of schooling between classical and frequentist orientations to probability? It does so based on two extended lessons with a class of Grade 5/6 students and in-depth interviews with eight students from the class. The Model 1 version of the software TinkerPlots was used in both settings to simulate increasingly large samples of random events. The aim was to document the students’ understanding of probability on a continuum from experimental to theoretical, including consideration of the interaction of manipulatives, the simulator, and the law of large numbers. A cognitive developmental model was used to assess students’ understanding and recommendations are made for classroom interventions.